Profile – Upendra Sainju

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Name:

Upendra Sainju

Job Title:

Research Soil Scientist

Email:

upendra.sainju@ars.usda.gov

Phone Number:

406-433-9408

Links:

Google Scholar Profile

Biography:

Dr. Upendra M. Sainju has been working as a Research Soil Scientist in dryland and irrigated cropping systems for the past 14 years in USDA-ARS, Sidney, Montana. Prior to this, he worked as postdoctoral associate and visiting scientist in Rutgers University, Washington State University, Fort Valley State University, and Tribhuvan University, Nepal. He received Ph.D. from University of Kentucky, M.S. from University of Florida, and B.S. from University of Udaipur, India. He is nationally and internationally renowned in developing soil and crop management practices that increase crop yields and quality, sequester carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the soil, increase organic matter, improve soil quality and productivity, reduce N fertilization rate and N leaching, and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Over the past 40 years, he has conducted extensive research on the effects of tillage, cropping systems, cover crops, N fertilization rates, poultry litter application, sheep grazing, and irrigation on soil C and N cycling, greenhouse gas emissions, and crop yields. His research accomplishments have been documented in 121 referred journal articles, 12 book chapters, 18 proceedings, 30 popular press, 4 technical reports, and 130 abstracts. He has actively participated in American Society of Agronomy (ASA) and Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) by serving in ASA community leader (Soil Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Emissions), committees (ASA and SSSA Fellows Committees, Best Paper Review Committee, Applied Soil Science Award Committee, Environmental Quality Award Committee), meetings (session chair, moderator, and paper presentation), reviewer of more than 25 journals, and Associate and Academic Editors in Agronomy Journal (2009-2012), Journal of Environmental Quality (2015-present), and PLOS ONE (2014-present). He received SSSA Fellow in 2014 and ASA Fellow in 2015. He also received outstanding certificate of merit award in USDA (2011-present), outstanding research award (Fort Valley State University, Georgia, 2004), and phenomenal and worthy keynote presentation in 5th International Conference in Agriculture and Horticulture, June 27-19, 2016, Cape Town, South Africa. He received more $5 million research grants from USDA and other organizations in collaboration with national and international universities to conduct research in soil, environmental, and crop sciences.

Research Areas:

  • Nitrogen cycling
  • Soil nitrogen
  • Plant N uptake
  • N-use efficiency
  • Nitrous oxide emissions

Current N-related Projects:

  • Soil nitrogen
  • Nitrogen balance
  • Plant nitrogen uptake
  • Nitrous oxide emisions

Bibliography:

Sainju, U.M., Lenssen, A.W., Allen, B.L., Stevens, W.B., and Jabro, J.D. 2017. Soil residual nitrogen under various crop rotations and cultural practices. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 180:187-196. Doi. 10.1002/jpln.201600496.
Sainju, U.M., Singh, H.P., and Singh, B.P. 2017. Soil carbon and nitrogen in response to perennial bioenergy perennial grasses, cover crop, and nitrogen fertilization. Pedosphere 27:223-238. Doi 10.1016/S1003-0160(17)60312-6.
Sainju, U.M., A.W. Lenssen, B.L. Allen, W.B. Stevens, and J.D. Jabro. 2016. Nitrogen balance in response to dryland crop rotations and cultural practices. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment 233:25-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.08.023.
Stevens, W.B., U.M. Sainju, T. Caesar-TonThat, and W.M. Iversen. 2015. Malt barley yield and quality affected by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization. Agronomy Journal. 107:2107-2119. doi:10.2134/agronj15.0027.
Sainju, U.M., Brett, A.L., Caesar-TonThat, T., Lenssen, A.W. 2015. Dryland soil carbon and nitrogen after thirty years of tillage and cropping sequence. Agronomy Journal 107:1822-1830. doi:10.2134/agronj15.0106.
Sainju, U.M., H.P. Singh, and B.P. Singh. 2015. Cover crop effects on soil carbon and nitrogen under bioenergy sorghum crops. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 70:410-417. doi:10.2489/jswc.70.6.410.
Sainju, U.M., W.B., Stevens, T. Caesar-Tonthat, and C. Montagne. 2014. Nitrogen dynamics affected by management practices in croplands transitioning from conservation reserve program. Agronomy Journal. 106:1677-1689. doi:10.2134/agronj13.0481.
Wang, J., and U.M. Sainju. 2014. Soil carbon and nitrogen fractions and crop yields affected by residue placement and crop species. PLOS ONE 9 (8): 1-11. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105039.
Wang J., and U.M. Sainju. 2014. Aggregate-associated carbon and nitrogen affected by residue placement, crop species, and nitrogen fertilization. Soil Science 179:153-165. Doi: 10.1079/SS000000000000051.
Sainju, U.M., J.L. Barsotti, A.W. Lenssen, and P.G. Hatfield. 2014. Particulate and active soil nitrogen fractions are reduced by sheep grazing in dryland cropping systems. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 99:79-93. DOI: 10.1007/s10705-014-9619-8.
Allen, B.L., A.W. Lenssen, U.M. Sainju, T. Caesar-TonThat, and R.G. Evans. 2014. Nitrogen use in durum and selected brassicaceae oilseeds in two-year rotations. Agronomy Journal 106:821-830. Doi: 10.2134/agronj13.0158.
Barsotti, J.L., Sainju, U.M., Lenssen, A.W., Montagne, C., and Hatfield, P.G. 2013. Crop yields and soil organic matter responses to sheep grazing in US northern Great Plains. Soil and Tillage Research 134:133-141. doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2013.07.015.
Sainju, U.M. 2013. Tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization influence dryland soil nitrogen. Agronomy Journal 105:1253-1263. Doi: 10.2134/agronj2013.0106.
Sainju, U.M., W.B. Stevens, R.G. Evans, and W.M. Iversen. 2013. Irrigation system and tillage effects on soil carbon and nitrogen fractions. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77:1225-1234. Doi: 10.2136/sssaj2012.0412.
Sainju, U.M., Lenssen, A.W., and J.L. Barsotti. 2013. Dryland malt barley yield and quality affected by tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization. Agronomy Journal 105:329-340. Doi: 10.2134/agronj2012.0343.
Sainju, U.M., Lenssen, A.W., Caesar, T., Jabro, J.D., Lartey, R.T., Evans, R.G., and Allen, B.L. 2012. Dryland soil nitrogen cycling influenced by tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 93:309-322. Doi: 10.1007/s10725-012-9518-9.
Sainju, U.M., T. Caesar-TonThat, A.W. Lenssen, and J.L. Barsotti. 2012. Dryland soil greenhouse gas emissions affected by cropping sequence and nitrogen fertilization. Soil Science Society of America Journal 76: 1741-1757. Doi: 10.2136/sssaj2013.0076.
Sainju, U.M., W.B. Stevens, T. Caesar-TonThat, and M. Liebig. 2012. Soil greenhouse gas emissions affected by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization. Journal of Environmental Quality 41:1774-1786. Doi: 10.2134/jeq2012.0176.
Sainju, U.M., A.W. Lenssen, H. Goosey, E. Snyder, and P. Hatfield. 2011. Sheep grazing in the wheat-fallow system affects dryland soil properties and grain yield. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 75:1789-1798. Doi: 10.2136/sssaj2010.0202.
Sainju, U.M., and A.W. Lenssen. 2011. Soil nitrogen dynamics under dryland alfalfa and durum-forage cropping sequences. Soil Science Society of America Journal.75: 669-677. Doi: 10.2136/sssaj2010.0221
Sainju, U.M., A.W. Lenssen, T. Caesar-TonThat, J.D. Jabro, R. T. Lartey, R.G. Evans, and B. L. Allen. 2011. Dryland residue and soil organic matter as influenced by tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice. Plant and Soil. 338:27-41. Doi: 10.1007/s11104-010-0403-5.
Sainju, U.M., A.W. Lenssen, H. Goosey, E. Snyder, and P. Hatfield. 2010. Dryland soil carbon and nitrogen influenced by sheep grazing in the wheat-fallow system. Agronomy Journal 102:1553-1561. doi:10.2134/agronj 2010.0216.
Sainju, U.M., Z. Senwo, E. Nyakatawa, I. Tazisong, and K.C. Reddy. 2010. Poultry litter increases nitrogen cycling compared with inorganic N fertilization. Agronomy Journal 102: 917-925. 10.2134/agronj2009.0482
Sainju, U.M., T, Caesar-ThonThat, and J.D. Jabro. 2009. Carbon and nitrogen fractions in dryland soil aggregates affected by long-term tillage and cropping sequence. Soil Science Society of America Journal 73:1488-1495. Doi: 10.2136/sssaj2008-0405.
Sainju, U.M., T. Caesar-Thonthat, A.W. Lenssen, R.G. Evans, and R. Kohlberg. 2009. Tillage and cropping sequence impacts on nitrogen cycling in dryland farming in eastern Montana, USA. Soil and Tillage Research 103:332-341. Doi: 10.1016/j.still.2008.10.024.
Sainju, U.M, Z.N. Senwo, E.Z. Nyakatawa, I.A. Tazisong, and K.C. Reddy. 2008. Soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration as affected by long-term tillage, cropping systems, and nitrogen fertilizer sources. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment 127:234-240. Doi: 10.1018/j.agee.2008.04.006.
Sainju, U.M., and B.P. Singh. 2008. Nitrogen storage with cover crops and nitrogen fertilization in tilled and non-tilled soils. Agronomy Journal 100:619-627. Doi: 10.2134/agronj2007.0236.
Sainju, U.M., A. Lenssen, T. Caesar-Tonthat, and J. Waddell. 2007. Dryland plant biomass and soil carbon and nitrogen pools as influenced by tillage and crop rotation. Soil and Tillage Research. 93:452-461. Doi: 10.1016/j.still.2006.06.003.
Sainju, U.M., B.P. Singh, W.F. Whitehead, and S. Wang. 2007. Accumulation and crop uptake of soil mineral nitrogen as influenced by tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization. Agronomy Journal 99:682-691. Doi: 10.2134/agronj2006.0177.
Sainju, U.M., B.P. Singh, W.F. Whitehead, and S. Wang . 2006. Tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil nitrogen and cotton and sorghum yields. European Journal of Agronomy. 25:372-382. Doi: 10.1016/j.eja.2006.07.005.
Sainju, U.M., T.H. Terrill, S. Gelaye, and B.P. Singh. 2006. Soil carbon and nitrogen pools under long-term productivity of rhizoma peanut and perennial weeds management systems. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 52:45-59. Doi: 10.1080/03650340500421729.
Sainju, U.M., A. Lenssen, T. Caesar-Tonthat, and J. Waddell. 2006. Tillage and crop rotation effects on dryland soil and residue carbon and nitrogen. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70:668-678. Doi: 10.2136/sssaj2005.0089.
Sainju, U.M., W.F. Whitehead, and B.P. Singh. 2005. Biculture legume-cereal covercrops for enhanced biomass yield and carbon and nitrogen. Agronomy Journal 97:1403-1412. Doi: 10.2134/agronj2004.0274.
Sainju, U.M., W.F. Whitehead, and B.P. Singh. 2005. Tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization effects on cotton and sorghum root biomass, carbon, and nitrogen. Agronomy Journal 97:1279-1290. Doi: 10.2134/agronj2004.0213
Sainju, U.M., W.F. Whitehead, and B.P. Singh. 2003. Cover crops and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil aggregation and carbon and nitrogen pools. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 83:155-165. Doi: 10.4141/S02-056.
Sainju, U.M., T.H. Terrill, S. Gelaye, and B.P. Singh. 2003. Soil aggregation and carbon and nitrogen pools under rhizoma peanut and perennial weeds. Soil Science Society of America Journal 67:146-155. Doi: 10.2136/sssaj2003.1460
Sainju, U.M., B.P. Singh, and W.F. Whitehead. 2002. Long-term effects of tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization on soil organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations in sandy sandy loam soils in Georgia, USA. Soil and Tillage Research 63:167-179.
Sainju, U.M., B.P. Singh, and S. Yaffa. 2002. Soil organic matter and tomato yield following tillage, cover cropping, and nitrogen fertilization. Agronomy Journal 94:594-602. Doi: 10.2134/agronj2002.5940.
Sainju, U.M., and B.P. Singh. 2001. Tillage, cover crop, and kill-planting date effects on corn yield and soil nitrogen. Agronomy Journal 93:878-886. Doi: 10.2134/agronj2001.934878x.
Sainju, U.M., S. Rahman, and B.P. Singh. 2001. Evaluating hairy vetch residue as nitrogen fertilizer for tomato in soilless medium. HortScience 36:90-93.
Sainju, U.M., B.P. Singh, and W.F. Whitehead. 2000. Cover crops and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil carbon and nitrogen and tomato yield. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 80:523-532. Doi: 10.4141/S99-107.
Yaffa, S., U.M. Sainju, B.P. Singh, and K.C. Reddy. 2000. Fresh market tomato yield and soil nitrogen as affected by tillage, cover cropping, and nitrogen fertilization. HortScience 35: 1258-1262.
Sainju, U.M., B.P. Singh, S. Rahman, and V.R. Reddy. 2000. Tillage, cover cropping, and nitrogen fertilization influence tomato yield and nitrogen uptake. HortScience 35:217-221.
Sainju, U.M., B.P. Singh, S. Rahman, and V.R. Reddy. 2000. Tomato root growth is influenced by tillage, cover cropping, and nitrogen fertilization. HortScience 35:78-82.
Sainju, U.M., B.P. Singh, S. Rahman, and V.R. Reddy. 1999. Soil nitrate-nitrogen under tomato following tillage, cover cropping, and nitrogen fertilization. Journal of Environmental Quality 28:1837-1844. Doi: 10.2134/jeq1999.00472425002800060021x.
Sainju, U.M., B.P. Singh. and W.F. Whitehead. 1998. Cover crop root distribution and its effects on soil nitrogen cycling. Agronomy Journal 90:511-518. Doi: 10.2134/agronj1998.00021962009000040012x.
Kuo, S., and U.M. Sainju. 1998. Nitrogen mineralization and availability of mixed leguminous and non-leguminous cover crop residues in soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 26:346-353. Doi: 10.1007/s003740050387.
Sainju, U.M., and B.P. Singh. 1997. Winter cover crops for sustainable agricultural systems: Influence on soil properties, water quality, and crop yields. HortScience 32:21-28.
Kuo, S., U.M. Sainju, and E.J. Jellum. 1997a. Winter cover cropping influence on nitrogen in soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61:1392-1399. Doi: 10.2136/sssaj1997.03615995006100050016x.
Kuo. S., U.M. Sainju, and E.J. Jellum. 1997b. Winter cover crop effects on organic carbon and carbohydrate in soil. Soil Science Society America Journal 61:145-152. Doi: 10.2136/sssaj1997.03615995006100010022x.
Kuo, S., U.M. Sainju, and E.J. Jellum. 1996. Winter cover cropping influence on nitrogen mineralization, presidedress soil nitrate test, and corn yields. Biology and Fertility of Soils 22:310-317. Doi: 10.1007/BF00334575.
Jellum, E.J., S. Kuo, and U.M. Sainju. 1995. Mineralization and plant availability of nitrogen in seafood waste compost in soil. Soil Science 160:125-135.