Profile – Sharon R. Long

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Sharon R. Long

Job Title:

Professor of Biological Sciences


Phone Number:



B.S. with Honors 1973 California Institute of Technology, Independent Studies Program
Ph.D. 1979 Yale University, Program in Cell and Developmental Biology

Positions Held:
Postdoctoral Fellow 1979-1981 Harvard University, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology
Assistant Professor 1981-1987 Stanford University, Department of Biological Sciences
Associate Professor 1987-1992 Stanford University, Department of Biological Sciences
Professor 1992-present Stanford University, Department of Biological Sciences
Investigator 1994-2001 Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Professor by courtesy 1994-present Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry
Associate Chair 1998-2001 Stanford University, Department of Biological Sciences
Steere-Pfizer Professor 2000-present Stanford University, Department of Biological Sciences
Dean 2001-2007 School of Humanities and Sciences, Stanford University

Honors and Fellowships:
1969-1973 Martin Marietta Foundation Scholar
1973 B.S. with Honors, California Institute of Technology
1973 Hinrichs Award (Outstanding Graduating Senior), California Institute of Technology
1974-1977 National Science Foundation Predoctoral Fellowship
1978-1979 National Science Foundation National Needs Postdoctoral Fellowship
1979-1981 National Institutes of Health Postdoctoral Fellowship
1984 NSF Presidential Young Investigator Award
1985 Shell Research Foundation Award
1988 Dean’s Award for Teaching Excellence, School of Humanities and Sciences
1989 Charles Albert Shull Award of the American Society for Plant Physiology
1991 NSF Faculty Award for Women
1992 Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science
1992-1997 MacArthur Prize Fellowship
1992 Dean’s Award for Teaching Excellence, School of Humanities and Sciences
1993 Member, National Academy of Sciences
1993 Fellow, American Academy of Microbiology
1994 Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences
1997-2000 Bing Teaching Fellow, Stanford University
1997-1998 INRA Georges Morel Memorial Fellowship of France
1998 Distinguished Alumni Award, California Institute of Technology
1999 Fellow, Association for Women in Science
2000 Fellow, American Philosophical Society
2002 Wilbur Cross Medal of Yale University, graduate school distinguished alumna award
2007 Fellow, American Society of Plant Biologists
2016 International Molecular Plant Microbe Interaction Research Award

Review Panel and Editorial Service:

1986-1999 Editorial Board, Plant Physiology
1987-1994 Editorial Board, Journal of Bacteriology
1987 Guest Editor, Annual Review of Genetics
1987-1996 Editorial Board, Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions
1989 Review Panel, NSF Presidential Young Investigator Award
1989-1993 Permanent member, NIH Study Section on Microbial Physiology and Genetics
1989-1992 USDA Plant Genome Research Coordinating Committee
1989-1991 Advisory Board, University of California, Davis, Dept Agronomy/Range Science
1989-1991 Chairman, Science Advisory Board, Resource Development Foundation, New York
1990 Guest Editor, Annual Review of Genetics
1991-1992 Review Panel, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Undergraduate Education Initiative
1992-1999 Associate Editor, Plant Physiology
1994-2000 Editorial Board, Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
1994-1997 Editor, Journal of Bacteriology
1995-1999 Editorial board, Developmental Biology
2000-2002 Associate Editor, Plant Cell
2000-2002 Editorial Board, P.N.A.S.
2009 -2013 N.I.H. Study Section on Prokaryotic Cell and Molecular Biology, permanent member
2013 U.C. Berkeley, Departmental Review Committee for Plant and Microbial Biology

Boards and advisory work

1988-1990 Board of Directors, International Society for Plant Molecular Biology
1991-1993 NRC Advisory Council for the USDA Plant Gene Expression Center, Albany CA
1992-1997 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education National Research Initiative Advisory Committee
1992-1998 External Advisory Committee, National Science Foundation Center for Engineering Plant Resistance Against Pathogens, Davis, CA
1992 Search Committee for Director of Plant Biology, Carnegie Institution of Washington
1993-1996 National Research Council, Committee on Undergraduate Science Education
1993-1999 Chair, Visiting Committee, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University
1993-1999 External Review Committee, NSF Center for Engineering Plant Resistance to Pathogens
1993-2000 Non-resident Fellow, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation
1994- Board of Directors, Annual Reviews, Incorporated
1994 Blue Ribbon Committee, Review of Life Sciences, University of California at Riverside
1995-1999 Class Membership Committee, National Academy of Sciences
1995-1998 Scientific Advisory Board, Mycogen Corporation
1995-1996 Nominations Committee, National Academy of Sciences
1996-1998 Appointments and Promotions Committee, Stanford University
1997-2001 Board of Scientific Advisors, The Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Fund
1997-2000 Board of Directors, International Society for Molecular-Plant Microbe Interactions
1998-2005 Visiting Committee, Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology
1999-2000 Beckman Scholars Committee, Beckman Foundation
1999-2001 Chair, Class II (Biological Sciences), National Academy of Sciences
2000-2002 Science Advisory Board, Paradigm Genetics
2000-2003 National Research Council, Biology 2010 Education Committee
2002-2007 Board of Directors, Monsanto Company
2003-2006 Medical Advisory Board, Howard Hughes Medical Institute
2004-2006 National Research Council, Board on Science Education
2007-2010 Council, National Academy of Sciences
2006-2009 AAMC-HHMI committee on Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians, co-chair
2008-present Board of Trustees, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA
2009-2010 Chair, HHMI Committee for Hughes Professor Award
2009-2012 Permanent Member NIH Study Section
2009-2012 Board of Directors, Koshland Science Museum, Washington, D.C.
2011-2016 President’s Committee on the National Medal of Science
2012-present Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Science Advisory Board
2013-present Mars Corporation, Science Advisory Board for N2 Genetics

Departmental Service
Graduate Admissions 1986, 1991
Safety 1986, 1987
Development, Affiliates 1986
Policy Committee 1986, 1988, 1990, 1994, 1996-1999
Undergraduate Studies 1985-1991
1987-1990 (Chairman)
Greenhouse Committee 1991-1993 (Chairman)
Associate Chair 1998-2001
Faculty Search and Promotion Committees 1996, 1998, 2001 (Chair), 2012 (Chair), 2015 (Chair)
Security Committee 2016-present (Chairman)
Awards Committee 2014-present (Chairman)

University Service:
University Biosafety Committee 1986-1987
Committee on Individually Designed Majors 1986
Search Committee, Dean of Humanities and Sciences 1988
Program for Cancer Biology 1990-1999
SC-ESS Task Force on Research and Scholarship 1991
Ad hoc committee for O’Neill Award 1991
Research Governing Committee, Stanford Japan Center 1991-1993
Search committee for the University Librarian 1992-1993
Search committee for the Provost 1993
Biotechnology Training Grant, Steering Committee 1995-1997
Appointments and Promotions Committee, School of H&S 1996-1998
Search Committee, University Chaplain 1999
Interdisciplinary Biosciences Planning Committee 1998-1999
Faculty Representative, Stanford Board of Trustees 1999-2001
Search Committee for the President 1999-2000
Dean of Humanities and Sciences, Stanford Executive Council 2001-2007
Executive Cabinet, Stanford University 2001-2007
Fact-finder for the University Provost 2008-2011
LCLS Search Committee 2012-present
Advisory Board to the President 2013-2015
Committee for School of Medicine Academic Roles 2017-present

Research Areas:

  • Genetics;
  • Microbiology
  • Molecular biology
  • Plant biology
  • Rhizobia
  • Rhizobia-legume symbiosis

Current N-related Projects:

  • Sinorhizobia meliloti
  • Nodule development and infection


H. M. Meade, S. R. Long, G. B. Ruvkun, S. W. Brown and F. M. Ausubel. (1982) Physical and genetic characterization of symbiotic and auxotrophic mutants of Rhizobium meliloti induced by transposon Tn5 mutagenesis. J. Bacteriol. 149:114-122.

S. R. Long, W. J. Buikema and F. M. Ausubel. (1982) Cloning of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes by direct complementation of Nod-minus mutants. Nature 298:485-488.

G. B. Ruvkun, S. R. Long, H. M. Meade, R. C van den Bos, and F. M. Ausubel. (1982) ISRml: A Rhizobium meliloti insertion sequence that transposes preferentially into nitrogen fixation genes. J. Molec. Applied Genetics 1:405-418.

A. M. Friedman, S. R. Long, S. E. Brown, W. J. Buikema and F. M. Ausubel. (1982) Use of cos derivative of pRK290 in constructing a clone bank of Rhizobium meliloti DNA. Gene 18:289-296.

A. M. Hirsch, S. R. Long, M. Bang, N. Haskins and F. M. Ausubel. (1982) Structural studies of alfalfa roots infected with nodulation mutants of Rhizobium meliloti. J. Bacteriol. 151:411-419.

S. R. Long. (1982) Use of mutants to study symbiotic nitrogen sixation. In Challenging Problems in Plant Health [T. Kommedahl and P.H. Williams, eds.] The American Phytophathological Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, Pp. 348-361.

W. J. Buikema, S. R. Long, S. E. Brown, R. C. van den Bos, C. Earl, and F. M. Ausubel. (1983) Physical and Genetic Characterization of Rhizobium meliloti Symbiotic Mutants. J. Molecular & Applied Genetics 2:249-260.

D. P. S. Verma and S. R. Long. (1983) The molecular biology of Rhizobium -legume symbiosis. In: International Review of Cytology, Supplement 14. Academic Press, Inc.
S. R. Long. (1984) Genetics of Rhizobium nodulation. In: Plant-Microbe Interactions, (T. Kosuge and E. Nester, eds.) Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York. Pp. 256-306.

T. T. Egelhoff, R. F. Risher, T. W. Jacobs, J. T. Mulligan and S. R. Long. (1985) Nucleotide sequence of Rhizobium meliloti 1021 nodulation genes: nodD is read divergently from nodABC . DNA 4:241-248.

A. M. Hirsch, D. Drake, T. W. Jacobs and S. R. Long. (1985) Nodules are induced on alfalfa roots by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium trifolii containing small segments of the Rhizobium meliloti nodulation region. J. Bacteriol. 161:223-230.

J. T. Mulligan and S. R. Long. (1985) Induction of Rhizobium meliloti nodC expression by plant exudate requires nodD. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:6609-6613.

T. T. Egelhoff and S. R. Long. (1985) Rhizobium meliloti nodulation Genes: Identification of nodDABC gene products, purification of nodA protein, and expression of nodA in Rhizobium meliloti . J. Bacteriol. 164:591-599.

N. K. Peters, J. W. Frost and S. R. Long. (1986) A plant flavone, luteolin, induces expression of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes. Science 233:977-980.

S. R. Long. (1986) Rhizobium genetics. In: Genetic engineering, volume 8, (J. Setlow, A.Hollaender, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, Pp. 135-150.

M. Dudley, T. W. Jacobs and S. R. Long. (1987) Microscopic analysis of alfalfa root cell divisions induced by Rhizobium meliloti. Planta 171:289-301.

M. M. Yelton, J. T. Mulligan and S. R. Long. (1987) Expression of Rhizobium meliloti nod genes in Rhizobium spp. and Agrobacterium backgrounds. J. Bacteriol. 169:3094-3098.

R. F. Fisher, H. L. Brierley, J. T. Mulligan and S. R. Long. (1987) Transcription of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes: Identification of a nodD transcription initiation site in vitro and in vivo. J. Biol. Chem. 262:6849-6855.

J. Swanson, J. K. Tu, J. M. Ogawa, R. Sanga, R. F. Fisher and S. R. Long. (1987) Extended nodulation gene region in Rhizobium meliloti 1021. I. Physical and genetic map of loci in clone pRmJT5. Genetics: 117:181-189.

R. F. Fisher, J. Swanson, J. T. Mulligan and S. R. Long. (1987) Extended nodulation gene region in Rhizobium meliloti 1021. II. Sequence and transcription start site for nodFEGH. Genetics:117:191-201.

R. F. Fisher, T. T. Egelhoff, J. T. Mulligan and S. R. Long. (1988) Specific binding of proteins from Rhizobium meliloti cell-free extracts containing NodD to DNA sequences upstream of inducible nodulation genes. Genes & Development 2:282-293.

N. K. Peters and S. R. Long. (1988) Alfalfa root exudates and compounds which promote or inhibit induction of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes. Plant Physiology 88:396-400.

S. R. Long. (1989) The Rhizobium-legume symbiosis: Life together in the underground. Cell 56:203-214.

S. R. Long. (1989) Rhizobium genetics. Annual Review of Genetics 23:483-506.
M. Dudley and S. R. Long. (1989) A non-nodulating alfalfa mutant displays root hair curling nor early cell division in response to Rhizobium meliloti. The Plant Cell 1:65-72.

J. T. Mulligan and S. R. Long. (1989) A family of activator genes regulates expression of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes. Genetics 122:7-18.

J. Schwedock and S. R. Long. (1989) Nucleotide sequence and protein products of two new nodulation genes of Rhizobium meliloti, nodP and nodQ. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interactions 2:181-194.

R. F. Fisher and S. R. Long. (1989) DNA footprint analysis of the transcriptional activator proteins NodD1 and NodD3 on inducible nod gene promoters. J. Bacteriol. 171:5492-5502.

S. R. Long and E. Morrey Atkinson. (1990) Rhizobium sweet-talking. Nature 344:712-713.

M. J. Barnett and S. R. Long. (1990) DNA sequence and translational product of a new nodulation-regulatory locus: SyrM has sequence similarity to NodD proteins. J. Bacteriol. 172:3695-3700.

M. J. Barnett and S. R. Long. (1990) Nucleotide sequence of an alfalfa calmodulin cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 18:3395-3395.

J. Schwedock and S. R. Long. (1990) ATP sulfurylase activity of the nodP and nodQ gene products of Rhizobium meliloti. Nature 348:644-647.

B. G. Rushing, M. M. Yelton and S. R. Long. (1991) Genetic and physical analysis of the nodD3 region of Rhizobium meliloti. Nucleic Acids Res. 19:921-927.

J. Ogawa, H. Brierley and S. R. Long. (1991). Analysis of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation mutant WL131: novel insertion sequence ISRm3 in nodG and altered nodH protein product. J. Bacteriol. 173:3060-3065.

W. Margolin, J. C. Corbo and S. R. Long. (1991) Cloning and characterization of a Rhizobium meliloti homolog of the Escherichia coli cell division gene ftsZ. J. Bacteriol. 173:5822-5830.

S. R. Long. (1992) Genetic analysis of Rhizobium nodulation. In: Biological Nitrogen Fixation, edited G. Stacey, R. H. Burris and H. J. Evans, pp. 560-597. Chapman and Hall, New York.

D.W. Ehrhardt, E.M. Atkinson and S.R. Long. (1992) Depolarization of alfalfa root hair membrane potential by Rhizobium meliloti Nod factors. Science 256: 998-1000. DOI: 10.1126/science.10744524

R. F. Fisher and S. R. Long. (1992) “Stirring dull roots”: Rhizobium-plant signal exchange. Nature 357:655-660.

J. S. Schwedock and S.R. Long. (1992) Rhizobium meliloti genes involved in sulfate activation: the two copies of nodPQ and a new locus, saa. Genetics 132:899-909. PMC1205247

E. M. Atkinson and S. R. Long. (1992) Sequence similarity of R. meliloti nodC to polysaccharide polymerizing enzymes. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interactions 5:439-442.

R. F. Fisher and S. R. Long. (1993) Interactions of NodD at the nod box: NodD binds to two distinct sites on the same face of the helix and induces a bend in the DNA. J. Mol. Biol. 233:336-348. PMID: 8411148

J. Swanson, J. T. Mulligan and S. R. Long. (1993) Regulatory interdependence of syrM and nodD3 of Rhizobium meliloti. Genetics 134:435-444.

W. Margolin and S. R. Long. (1993) Isolation and characterization of a DNA replication origin from the 1700 kilobase pair symbiotic megaplasmid pRmeSU47b of Rhizobium meliloti. J. Bacteriol. 175:6553-6561.

J. Cooper and S. R. Long. (1994) Morphogenetic complementation of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation mutants by trans-Zeatin secretion. The Plant Cell 6:215-225.

W. Margolin and S. R. Long. (1994) A second ftsZ cell division gene in Rhizobium meliloti. J. Bacteriol. 176:2033-2043.

J. S. Schwedock and S. R. Long. (1994) An open reading frame downstream of Rhizobium meliloti nodQ1 shows nucleotide sequence homology to an Agrobacterium tumefaciens insertion sequence. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interactions 7:151-153.

E. M. Atkinson, M. Palcic, O. Hindsgaul and S. R. Long. (1994) Biosynthesis of Rhizobium meliloti lipooligosaccharide Nod factors: NodA is required for an N-acyltransferase activity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:8418-8422.

J. S. Schwedock, C.-X. Liu, T. Leyh and S. R. Long. (1994) Rhizobium meliloti NodP and NodQ form a multifunctional sulfate activating complex that requires GTP for activity. J. Bacteriol. 176:7055-7064.

J. Ogawa and S. R. Long. (1995) The Rhizobium meliloti groELc locus is required for regulation of early nod genes by the transcription activator NodD. Genes & Development 9:714-729.

D. Ehrhardt, E. M. Atkinson, K. F. Faull, R. Armstrong and S. R. Long. (1995) In vitro sulfotransferase activity of NodH, a nodulation protein of Rhizobium meliloti required for host-specific nodulation. J Bacteriol. 177:6237-6245.

B. G. Rushing and S. R. Long. (1995) Cloning and characterization of the sigA gene encoding the major sigma subunit of Rhizobium meliloti. J Bacteriol. 177:6952-6957.

W. Margolin, D. Bramhill and S. R. Long. (1995) The dnaA gene of Rhizobium meliloti lies within an unusual gene arrangement. J. Bacteriol. 177:2892-2900.

M. Barnett, B. G. Rushing, R. F. Fisher and S. R. Long. (1996) Transcription start sites for syrM and nodD3 flank an insertion sequence relic in Rhizobium meliloti. J. Bacteriol. 178:1782-1787.

D. W. Ehrhardt, R. Wais, and S. R. Long. (1996) Calcium spiking in plant root hairs responding to Rhizobium nodulation signals. Cell 85:673-681.

S. R. Long. (1996) Rhizobium symbiosis: Nod factors in perspective. The Plant Cell 8:1885-1898.

G. Kalinowski and S. R. Long. (1996) Deletion analysis of the 5′ untranslated region of the Rhizobum meliloti nodF gene. Mol.. Plant-Microbe Interactions 9:869-873.

D. J. Gage, T. Bobo and S. R. Long. (1996) Use of green fluorescent protein to visualize the early events of symbiosis between Rhizobium meliloti and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) J. Bacteriol. 178:7159-7166.

M. J. Barnett and S. R. Long. (1997) Identification and characterization of a gene on Rhizobium meliloti pSyma, syrB, that negatively affects syrM expression. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interactions 10:550-559.

M. J.Barnett, J. A. Swanson and S. R. Long. (1998) Multiple genetic controls on Rhizobium meliloti syrA , a regulator of exopolysaccharide abundance. Genetics 148:19-32.

L. S. Smith and S. R. Long. (1998) Requirements for syrM and nodD Genes in the Nodulation of M. truncatula by Rhizobium meilioli 1021. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interactions 11:937-940.

D. J. Gage and S. R. Long. (1998) a-Galactoside uptake in Rhizobium meliloti: Isolation and characterization of agpA, a gene encoding a periplasmic binding protein required for melibiose and raffinose utilization. J. Bacteriol. 180:

P. A. Covitz, L. S. Smith and S. R. Long. (1998) Expressed sequence tags from a root-hair-enriched Medicago truncatula cDNA library. Plant Physiol. 117:1325-1332.

V. Oke and S. R. Long. (1999) Bacterial genes induced within the nodule during the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Molecular Microbiology 32 (4):837-849.

A. P. Abola, M. Willits, R. Wang and S. R. Long. (1999) Reduction of adenosine-5’-phosphosulfate instead of 3’-phosphoadenosine-5’-phosphosulfate in cysteine biosynthesis by Rhizobium meliloti. and other members of the family Rhizobiaceae. J. Bacteriol. 181 (17):5280-5287.

V. Oke and S. R. Long.(1999) Bacteroid formation in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2:641-646.

F. Barloy-Hubler, D. Capela, M. Barnett, S. Kalman, N. A. Federspiel, S. R. Long and F. Galibert. (2000) High-resolution physical map of the Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 pSyma megaplasmid. J. Bacteriol. 182(4):1185-1189.

M. J. Barnett, V. Oke and S. R. Long. (2000) New genetic tools for use in the Rhizobiaceae and other bacteria. BioTechniques 29:240-245, plus cover photo.

R. J. Wais, C. Galera, G. Oldroyd, R. Catoira, R.V. Penmetsa, D. Cook, C. Gough, J. Dénarié, and S. R. Long. (2000) Genetic analysis of calcium spiking responses in nodulation mutants of Medicago truncatula. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:13407-13412.

S. R. Long. (2000) Genes and Signals in the Rhizobium-Legume symbiosis. Plant Physiology 125 (1):69-72.

F. Galibert, T.M. Finan, S.R. Long, A. Pühler, P. Abola, F. Ampe, F. Barloy-Hubler, M. J. Barnett, A. Becker, P. Boistard, G. Bothe, M. Boutry, L. Bowser, J. Buhrmester, E. Cadieu, D. Capela, P. Chain, A. Cowie, R. W. Davis, S. Dréano, N.A. Federspiel, R.F. Fisher, S. Gloux, T. Godrie, A. Goffeau, B. Golding, J. Gouzy, M. Gurjal, I. Hernandez-Lucas, A. Hong, L. Huizar, R.W. Hyman, T. Jones, D. Kahn, M.L. Kahn, S. Kalman, D.H. Keating, E Kiss, C. Komp, V. Lelaure, D. Masuy, C. Palm, M.C. Peck, T.M Pohl, D. Portetelle, B. Purnelle, U. Ramsperger, R. Surzycki, P. Thébault, M. Vandenbol, F.-J. Vorhölter, S. Weidner, D. H. Wells, K.Wong, K.-C. Yeh, J. Batut. (2001) The composite genome of the legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti. Science 293: 668-672. DOI: 10.1126/science.1060966

V. Oke, B. G. Rushing, E. J. Fisher, M. Moghadam-Tabrizi and S. R. Long. (2001) Identification of the heat shock sigma factor RpoH and a second RpoH-like protein in Sinorhizobium meliloti. Microbiology 147:2399-2408.

G. E. D. Oldroyd, E. M. Engstrom and S. R. Long. (2001) Ethylene inhibits the Nod factor perception pathway of Medicago truncatula. Plant Cell 13:1835-1849.

M.J. Barnett, R.F. Fisher, T. Jones, C. Komp, A.P. Abola, F. Barloy-Hubler, L. Bowser, D. Capela, F. Galibert J. Gouzy, M. Gurjal, A. Hong, L. Huizar, R.W. Hyman, D. Kahn, M.L. Kahn, S. Kalman, D.H. Keating, C. Palm, M.C. Peck, R. Surzycki, D.H. Wells, K.-C. Yeh, R.W. Davis, N.A. Federspiel, and S.R. Long. (2001). Nucleotide sequence and predicted functions of the entire Sinorhizobium meliloti. pSymA megaplasmid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98 (17): 9883-9888. doi: 10.1073/pnas.161294798

G. E. D. Oldroyd, R. M. Mitra, R. J. Wais and S. R. Long. (2001). Evidence for structurally specific negative feedback in the Nod factor signal transduction pathway. Plant Journal 28 (2):191-199, plus cover photo.

K. C. Yeh, M. C. Peck and S. R. Long. (2002) Luteolin and GroESL modulate in vitro activity of NodD. J. Bacteriol. 184 (2):525-530.

D. H. Wells and S. R. Long. (2002) The Sinorhizobium meliloti stringent response affects multiple aspects of symbiosis. Molecular Microbiology 43 (5):1115-1127.

E.M. Engstrom, D.W. Ehrhardt, R.J. Wais and S.R. Long (2002). Pharmacological analysis of Nod factor-induced calcium spiking in Medicago truncatula. Evidence for the requirement of type IIA calcium pumps and phosphoinositide signaling. Plant Physiology 128: 1390-1401. doi: 10.1104/pp.010691

R. J. Wais, D. H. Keating and S. R. Long. (2002) Structure-function analysis of Nod factor-induced calcium spiking in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Plant Physiology 129:211-224.

A. M. Southwick and S. R. Long. (2002) Heterologous expression to assay for plant lectins or receptors. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 20:27-41.

M.C. Peck, T. Gaal, R.F. Fisher, R.L. Gourse and S.R. Long (2002). The RNA polymerase a subunit from Sinorhizobium meliloti can assemble with RNA polymerase subunits from Escherichia coli and function in basal and activated transcription both in vivo and in vitro. J. Bacteriol. 184: 3808-3814. DOI: 10.1128/JB.184.14.3808-3814.2002

A. M. Southwick, L.-X. Wang, S. R. Long and Y. C. Lee. (2002) Activity of Sinorhizobium meliloti NodAB and NodH enzymes on thiochitooligomers. J. Bacteriol. 184 (14):4039-4043.

D. H. Keating, M. G. Willits and S. R. Long. (2002) A Sinorhizobium meliloti mutant altered in lipopolysaccharide sulfation is defective in symbiosis. J. Bacteriol. 184 (23):6681-6689.

R. J. Wais, D. H. Wells and S. R. Long. (2002) Analysis of differences between S. meliloti 1021 and 2011 strains using the host calcium spiking response. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interactions 15 (12):1245-1252.

G. E. D. Oldroyd and S. R. Long. (2003) Identification and characterization of NSP2, a gene of Medicago truncatula involved in Nod factor signaling. Plant Physiology 131: 1027-1032.

S. L. Shaw, and S. R. Long. (2003) Nod factor elicits two separable calcium responses in Medicago truncatula root hair cells. Plant Physiology 131:976-984.

R. V. Penmetsa, J. A. Frugoli, L. S. Smith, S. R. Long and D. R. Cook. (2003) Dual genetic pathways controlling nodule number in Medicago truncatula. Plant Physiology 131:998-1008.
B. B. Amor, S. L. Shaw, G. E. D. Oldroyd, F. Maillet, R.V. Penmetsa, D. Cook, S. R. Long, J. Dénarié, and C. Gough. (2003) The NFP locus of Medicago truncatula controls an early step of Nod factor signal transduction upstream of a rapid calcium flux and root hair deformation. The Plant Journal 34 (4):495-506.

S. L. Shaw and S.R. Long. (2003) Nod factor inhibition of reactive oxygen efflux in the host legume. Plant Physiology 132 (4):2196-2204.

D. H. Wells and S.R. Long. (2003). Mutations in rpoBC rescue the defects of a Sinorhizobium meliloti relA mutant.
J. Bacteriol. 185 (18) 5602-5610, cover photo.

J.M. Harris, R.J. Wais and S.R. Long (2003). Rhizobium-induced calcium spiking in Lotus japonicus. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interactions 16 (4): 335-341.

R.M. Mitra and S.R. Long. (2004). Plant and bacterial symbiotic mutants define three transcriptionally distinct stages in the development of the Medicago truncatula/Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis. Plant Physiology 134 (2) 595-604.

J.M.Ané, G.B. Kiss, B.K. Riely, R.V. Penmetsa, G.E.D. Oldroyd, C. Ayax, J. Lévy, F. Debellé, J-M Baek, P. Kalo, C. Rosenberg, B.A. Roe, S.R. Long, J. Dénarié and D.R. Cook (2004). Medicago truncatula DMI1 required for bacterial and fungal symbioses in legumes. Science 303: 1364-1367.

R.M. Mitra, C.A.Gleason, A. Edwards, J. Hadfield, J.A.Downie, G.E.D. Oldroyd and S.R. Long (2004). A Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase required for symbiotic nodule development: gene identification by transcript-based cloning. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101 (13): 4701-4705.

R.M. Mitra, S. Shaw and S.R. Long (2004). Six non-nodulating plant mutants defective for nod factor-induced transcriptional changes associated with the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 10217-10222.

P. Kaló, C. Gleason, A. Edwards, J. Marsh, R.M. Mitra, S. Hirsch, J. Jakab, S. Sims, S. R. Long, J. Rogers, G.G. Kiss, J.A. Downie and G.E.D. Oldroyd. (2005) Nodulation signaling in legumes requires NSP2, a member of the GRAS family of transcriptional regulators. Science 308: 1786-1789.

C.G. Starker, A.L. Para-Colmenares, L.S. Smith, R.M. Mitra, and S.R. Long (2006). Nitrogen fixation mutants of Medicago truncatula fail to support plant and bacterial symbiotic gene expression. Plant Physiology, 140: 671-680.

M.C. Peck, R.F. Fisher, and S.R. Long (2006). Diverse flavonoids stimulate NodD1 binding to nod gene promoters in Sinorhizobium meliloti. J. Bacteriol. 188 (15): 5417-5427.

M.J. Barnett and R.F. Fisher (Long lab) (2006) Global gene expression in the rhizobial-legume symbiosis. Symbiosis 42:1-24

J. F. Marsh, A. Rakocevic, R.M. Mitra, L. Brocard, J. Sun, A. Eschstruth, S. R. Long, M. Schultze, P. Ratet and G.E. Oldroyd. (2007). Medicago truncatula NIN is essential for rhizobial-independent nodule organogenesis induced by autoactive calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Plant Physiology 144 (1): 324-35.

P. H. Middleton, J. Jakab, R. V. Penmetsa, C. G. Starker, J. Doll, P. Kaló, R. Prabhu, J. F. Marsh, R.M. Mitra, A. Kereszt, B. Dudas, K. VandenBosch, S. R. Long, D. R. Cook, G. B. Kiss and G. E. Oldroyd. (2007). An ERF transcription factor in Medicago truncatula that is essential for Nod factor signal transduction. Plant Cell 19 (4): 1221-1234. (Cover article)

A. Becker, M. J. Barnett, D. Capela, M. Dondrupd, P.-B. Kamp, E. Krol, B. Linke, S. Rüberg, K. Runte, B. K. Schroeder, S. Weidner, S. N. Yurgel, J. Batut, S. R. Long, A. Pühler and A. Goesmann (2009) A portal for rhizobial genomes: RhizoGATE integrates a Sinorhizobium meliloti genome annotation update with postgenome data. J. Biotechnol. 140: 45-40

E. J. Chen, R. F. Fisher, V. M. Perovich, E. A. Sabio and S. R. Long (2009) Identification of direct transcriptional target genes of ExoS/ChvI two-component signaling in Sinorhizobium meliloti. J. Bacteriol. 191: 6833-6842. doi:10.1128/JB.00734-09.

C. H. Haney and S. R. Long (2010) Plant flotillins are required for infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107 (1): 478-483. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0910081107.

D. Wang, J. Griffitts, C. Starker, E. Fedorova, E. Limpens, S. Ivanov, T. Bisseling and S. R. Long (2010) A nodule-specific protein secretory pathway required for nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Science 327: 1126-1129.

E. Schnabel, A. Mukherjee, L. Smith, T. Kassaw, S. R. Long, and J. Frugoli (2010) The lss supernodulation mutant of Medicago truncatula reduces expression of the SUNN gene. Plant Physiology 154: 1390‐1402.

A. Miyahara, J. Richens, C. Starker G. Morieri, L. Smith, S. Long, J.A. Downie, and G.E.D. Oldroyd (2010) Conservation in function of a SCAR/WAVE component during infection thread and root hair growth in Medicago truncatula. Molec. Plant-Microbe Interactions. 23: 1553-1562. DOI: 10.1094/MPMI‐06‐10‐0144.

C.L. Harrison, M.B. Crook, G. Peco, S.R. Long, and J.S. Griffitts (2011) Employing site-specific recombination for conditional genetics in Sinorhizobium meliloti. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 77:3916-3922. doi:10.1128/AEM 00544-11.

C.H Haney, B. Riely, D. Tricoli, D.R. Cook, D.W. Ehrhardt and S.R. Long (2011) Symbiotic rhizobia bacteria trigger a change in localization and dynamics of the Medicago truncatula receptor kinase LYK3. Plant Cell 23:2774-2787. Online / June 2011/tpc.111.086389.

A.P. Rightmyer and S.R. Long (2011) Pseudonodule formation by wild-type and symbiotic mutant Medicago truncatula in response to auxin transport inhibitors. Molec. Plant-Microbe Interactions online before print DOI: 10.1094/MPMI-04-11-0103. 24:1372-1384.

E. Schnabel, T. Kessaw, L. Smith, J. Marsh, G.E. Oldroyd, S.R. Long, J. Frugoli (2011) The ROOT DETERMINED NODULATION 1 gene regulates nodule number in roots of Medicago truncatula and defines a highly conserved, uncharacterized plant gene family. Plant Physiol. 157 : 328-340.

A.T. Fields, C.S. Navarrete, A.Z. Zare, Z. Huang, M. Mostafavi, J.C. Lewis, Y. Rezaeihaghighi, B.J. Brezler, S. Ray, A.L. Rizzacasa M.J. Barnett, S.R. Long, E.J. Chen and J.C. Chen (2012) The conserved polarity factor PodJ1 impacts multiple cell envelope-associated functions in Sinorhizobium meliloti. Mol Microbiol. 84:892-920. PMID: 22553970

M.B. Crook, D.P. Lindsay, M.B. Biggs, J.S. Bentley, J.C. Price, S.C. Clement, M.J. Clement, S.R. Long and J.S. Griffitts (2012). Rhizobial plasmids that cause impaired symbiotic nitrogen fixation and enhanced host invasion. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 25: 1026-1033

J.P. Schlüter, J. Reinkensmeier, M.J. Barnett, C. Lang, E. Krol, R. Giegerich, S.R. Long and A. Becker (2013). Global mapping of transcription start sites and promoter motifs in the symbiotic alpha-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. BMC Genomics 14: 156

A.P. Lehman and S.R. Long (2013) Exopolysaccharides from Sinorhizobium meliloti Can Protect against H2O2-Dependent Damage. J Bacteriol 195: 5362-5369

M.J. Barnett and S.R. Long (2015) The Sinorhizobium meliloti SyrM regulon: effects on global gene expression are mediated by syrA and nodD3. J. Bacteriol 197: 1792-1806

C. Lang and S.R. Long (2015). Transcriptomic and genetic analysis of differentiation in Sinorhizobium melioti-Medicago truncatula nodulation. Molec. Plant-Microbe Interactions 28:856-868

K. Wippel and S.R. Long (2016) Contributions of Sinorhizobium meliloti transcriptional regulator DksA to bacterial growth and efficient symbiosis with Medicago sativa. J. Bacteriol 198: 1374-1383

M.J. Barnett and S.R. Long (2017) Novel genes and regulators that influence production of cell surface exopolysaccharides in Sinorhizobium meliloti. J. Bacteriol. doi: 10.1128/JB.00501-17