Profile – Jeanette M. Norton

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Jeanette M. Norton

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Jeanette M. Norton
Professional preparation
BS., 1980. State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry. Forest Biology. Concentrations in Forest Botany and Pathology and Biochemistry.
Ph.D., 1991. University of California, Berkeley. Soil Science (Soil Microbiology).

Present and Past Positions
2007-present. Professor of Soil Science (Soil Microbiology), Ecology Center Faculty Associate, Adjunct in Biology, Utah State University, Logan, Utah.
1999-2007. Associate Professor, Soil Microbiology, Utah State University
1993- 1999. Assistant Professor, Soil Microbiology and Program in Molecular Biology, Utah State University
1991- December 1992. Research Associate. NSF Center for Microbial Ecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.
Research Interests
Soil microbiology, nitrogen cycling in agricultural systems, ecology and genomics of nitrification, global change in nutrient cycles, microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling, DNA probes for enzymatic functions, role of community structure in bioremediation.
51 journal articles, 5 book chapters
Soil microbiology research in the Norton laboratory focuses on understanding key organisms in the nitrogen and carbon cycles of terrestrial system on many different levels; from individual genes to ecosystem processes. Key areas of research interest include: the ecology of nitrification and genomics of ammonia oxidizing bacteria, microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling in agricultural soils, microbial / plant interactions in waste management, and role of microbial community structure in biogeochemistry and bioremediation. Nitrifying microorganisms play critical roles in the movement of reactive nitrogen through ecosystems and in the availability of nitrogen for plant growth. In order to better understand and manage the processes of nitrification and nitrogen mineralization we characterize the microorganisms responsible and examine the controls on process rates in agricultural and wildland systems. The sustainability of agricultural systems may be improved by increasing the use efficiency of fertilizers through managing nitrification and the mineralization of N from organic sources.

Research Areas:

  • Nitrification
  • Nitrogen cycling in agricultural soils

Current N-related Projects:

  • Linking nitrification to microbial community in agroecosystems under changing climate
  • Functional Genomics and Ecology of Nitrifying Bacteria


Book Chapters:
Norton, J. M., and J. P. Schimel. 2011. Nitrogen mineralization immobilization turnover. In P. M. Huang (ed.), Handbook of Soil Science, Second Edition ed. CRC Press.
Norton, J. M. 2011. Diversity and environmental distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. In B. B. Ward, M. G. Klotz, and D. J. Arp (eds.), Nitrification. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
Norton J.M. 2008. Nitrification in Agricultural Soils. in ASA Monograph Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils. W. Raun and J. Schepers (eds). Agronomy Monograph 49. ASA CSSA SSSA, Inc. Madison WI.
Norton J.M. 1999. Nitrogen Mineralization and Immobilization Turnover. Pages C148-C160 in Handbook of Soil Science, M. Sumner (Editor), CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton,
Norton J.M. 1999. Nitrification. Pages C160-C181 in Handbook of Soil Science, M. Sumner (Editor), CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.

Selected Journal Articles:
Rice M.C., Norton J.M., Stein, L.Y. Kozlowski, J., Bollmann A., Klotz M.G. et al. 2017. Complete genome of Nitrosomonas cryotolerans ATCC 49181, a phylogenetically distinct ammonia-oxidizing bacterium isolated from arctic waters. GenomeA in press.
Rice M.C., Norton J.M., Valois F., Bollmann A., Bottomley P.J., Klotz M.G. et al. 2016. Complete genome of Nitrosospira briensis C-128, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium from agricultural soil. Standards in Genomic Sciences 11.
Ouyang, Y., Norton, J. M., Stark, J. M., Reeve, J.R., & Habteselassie, M. Y., 2016. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria are more responsive than archaea to nitrogen source in an agricultural soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 96:4-15. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2016.01.012
Morris, K.A., Stark, J.M., Bugbee, B., Norton, J.M., 2016. The invasive annual cheatgrass releases more nitrogen than crested wheatgrass through root exudation and senescence. Oecologia, 1-13. doi:10.1007/s00442-015-3544-7.
Jumadi, O., S.F. Hiola, Y. Hala, J. Norton and K. Inubushi. 2014. Influence of Azolla (Azolla microphylla Kaulf.) compost on biogenic gas production, inorganic nitrogen and growth of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) in a silt loam soil. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 60: 722-730.
Stark, J.M. and J.M. Norton, 2014. The invasive annual cheatgrass increases nitrogen availability in 24-year-old replicated field plots. Oecologia, 1-11.
Habteselassie, M.Y., L. Xu, and J.M. Norton. 2013. Ammonia-oxidizer communities in an agricultural soil treated with contrasting nitrogen sources. Front Microbiol 4:326 doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00326:326.
Bollmann, A., C. J. Sedlacek, J. M. Norton, H. J. Laanbroek, Y. Suwa, , L. Y. Stein, M. G. Klotz, D. J. Arp, L. Sayavedra-Soto, L. A. Goodwin, and 25 others). 2013. Complete genome sequence of Nitrosomonas sp. Is79 – an ammonia oxidizing bacterium adapted to low ammonium concentrations. Standards in Genomic Sciences 7:469-482.
Suwa, Y., J.M. Norton, A. Bollmann, M.G. Klotz, L.Y. Stein et al. 2011. Genome sequence of Nitrosomonas sp. AL212, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium sensitive to high levels of ammonia. J. Bacteriol. 193:5047-5048 (erratum 193:6112).
Campbell, M.A., P.S.G. Chain, H. Dang, A.F. El Sheikh, J.M. Norton, N.L. Ward, B.B. Ward, and M.G. Klotz. 2011. Nitrosococcus watsonii sp. nov., a new species of marine obligate ammonia-oxidizing bacteria that is not omnipresent in the world’s oceans: calls to validate the names ‘Nitrosococcus halophilus’ and ‘Nitrosomonas mobilis’. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 76:39-48.
Norton, J.M. and J.M. Stark. 2011. Regulation and measurement of nitrification in terrestrial systems. Meth. Enzymol.486:343-362.
Koper, T. E., M. Y. Habteselassie, J. M. Stark, and J. M. Norton. 2010. Nitrification exhibits Haldane kinetics in an agricultural soil treated with ammonium sulfate or dairy waste compost. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 74:316-322.
Norton, J. M., M. G. Klotz, L. Y.Stein, D. J. Arp, P. J. Bottomley, P. S.G. Chain, L. J. Hauser, M. L. Land, F.W. Larimer, M.W. Shin, S. R. Starkenburg. 2008. Complete genome sequence of Nitrosospira multiformis, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium from the soil environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:3559-3572.
Norton, J.M. Habteselassie, M. Y., J. M. Stark, B. E. Miller. 2007. Manure treatments change nitrogen cycling in soils receiving repeated applications of dairy-wastes. Western Nutrient Management 2007 Proceedings, 7: 40-44.
Stein, L. Y., D. J. Arp, P. M. Berube, P. S. G. Chain, L. Hauser, M. S. M. Jetten, M. G. Klotz, F. W. Larimer, J. M. Norton, H. J. M. O. d. Camp, M. Shin, and X. Wei. 2007. Whole-genome analysis of the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas eutropha C91: implications for niche adaptation. Environmental Microbiology 9: 2993-3007.
Henry, A., W. Doucette, J. Norton, and B. Bugbee. 2007. Changes in crested wheatgrass root exudation caused by flood, drought, and nutrient stress. J. Environ. Qual. 36:904-912.
Habteselassie, M. Y., J. M. Stark, B. E. Miller, S. G. Thacker and J. M. Norton. 2006. Soil nitrogen and nutrient dynamics after repeated application of treated dairy-waste. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70:1328-1337.
Habteselassie, M. Y., J. M. Stark, B. E. Miller, S. G. Thacker and J. M. Norton. 2006. Gross nitrogen transformations in an agricultural soil after repeated dairy-waste application. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70: 1338-1348.
Klotz, M.G., D. J. Arp, P. S.G. Chain, A. F. El-Sheikh, L. J.Hauser, N. G. Hommes, F. W. Larimer, S. A. Malfatti, J. M. Norton, A. T. Poret-Peterson, L. M. Vergez, and B. B. Ward. 2006. The complete genome sequence of the marine, chemolithoautotrophic, ammonia- oxidizing bacterium Nitrosococcus oceani ATCC19707. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 6299-6315.
Shi, W., B.E. Miller, J. M. Stark and J. M. Norton. 2004. Microbial nitrogen transformations in response to treated dairy waste in an agricultural soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 68:1867-1874.
Koper T.E., A.L. El-Sheikh, J.M. Norton and M.G. Klotz. 2004. Urease-encoding genes in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.70:2342-2348.
Monaco T.M., C.T. Mackowan, D. A. Johnson, T. A. Jones, J.M. Norton, K.J. Connors, J.B. Norton, M. B. Redinbaugh. 2003. Nitrogen effects on seed germination and seedling growth. J. Range Manage. 56: 646-653.
Monaco T.M., D. A. Johnson, J.M. Norton, T. A. Jones, K.J. Connors, J.B. Norton, M. B. Redinbaugh. 2003. Contrasting responses of Intermountain West grasses to soil nitrogen. J. Range Manage. 56: 282-290.
Chain, P., J. Lamerdin, F. Larimer, W. Regala, V. Lao, M. Land, L. Hauser, A. Hooper, M. Klotz, J. Norton, L. Sayavedra-Soto, D. Arciero, N. Hommes, M. Whittaker, D. Arp. 2003. Complete genome sequence of the ammonia oxidizing bacterium and obligate chemolithoautotroph Nitrosomonas europaea. J. of Bacteriol.185:2759–2773.
Norton J.M., J.J Alzerreca, Y. Suwa and M. G. Klotz. 2002. Diversity of ammonia monooxygenase operon in autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Arch. Microbiol. 177:139-149.
Shi, W. and J.M. Norton. 2000. Microbial control of nitrate concentrations in an agricultural soil treated with dairy waste compost or ammonium fertilizer. Soil Biol. Biochem.32:1453-1457.
Shi, W. and J.M. Norton. 2000. Effect of long-term, biennial, fall-applied ammonia and nitrapyrin on soil nitrification. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 64:228-234.
Alzerreca, J.J., J.M. Norton and M.G. Klotz. 1999. The amo operon in marine, ammonia-oxidizing g-proteobacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Lett.:180: 21-29.
Shi W., J.M. Norton, B.E. Miller and M.G. Pace. 1999. Aeration and moisture effects during windrow composting on the N fertilizer value of composts. Appl.Soil Ecol. 11:17-28.
Klotz M.G. and J.M. Norton. 1998. Multiple copies of ammonia monooxygenase (amo) operons have evolved under biased AT/GC mutational pressure in ammonia-oxidizing autotrophic bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 168:303-311.
Sayavedra-Soto, L. A., N. G. Hommes, J.J. Alzerreca, D. J. Arp, J. M. Norton, and M. G. Klotz. 1998. Transcription of the amoC, amoA and amoB genes in Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosospira sp. NpAV. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 167: 81-88.
Perrin T.S., J.L. Boettinger, D.T. Drost, and J.M. Norton. 1998. Decreasing nitrogen leaching from sandy soil with ammonium-loaded clinoptilolite. J. Environ. Qual. 27:656-663
Klotz M.G, J.J. Alzerreca and J.M. Norton. 1997. A gene encoding a membrane protein exists upstream of the amoA/amoB genes in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria; a third member of the amo operon? FEMS Microbiol. Lett.: 150: 65-73.