Profile – Euan K. James

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Euan K. James

Job Title:

Research leader in beneficial plant-bacterial interactions, The James Hutton Institute


Phone Number:

+44 (0)344 928 5428


Google Scholar Profile


I completed my PhD in Biological Sciences at the University of Dundee in 1990, and then over the next 10 years worked as a consultant in Brazil and the Philippines where I specialised in the localisation of N-fixing bacteria in sugarcane and rice using electron microscopy.
During my time in Brazil I also gained a strong interest in the legume-rhizobial symbioses, particularly their role in tropical ecosystems and agriculture, and co-wrote a NERC-funded project at the University of St Andrews on the functioning of legume symbioses in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands.
My position prior to joining the James Hutton Institute was as an electron microscopist at the University of Dundee College of Life Sciences, where I also acted as Principal Investigator on a NERC-funded project “In search of beta-rhizobia: exploring the symbionts of Mimosa in Brazil.”

Past research:
Identified the nature of the O2 regulation mechanism in legume nodules using electron microscopy.
Identified the mechanisms that allow flooding-tolerant legumes to fix N whilst flooded in both tropical and temperate ecosystems.
Confirmed the endophytic nature of several species of N-fixing bacteria in sugarcane and rice using light and electron microscopy.
Showed that a completely “new” (actually ancient) type of symbiont existed in legume nodules in tropical ecosystems that was unrelated to Rhizobium. These symbionts are now termed “Beta-rhizobia”.



Research Areas:

  • Plant electron microscopy
  • Nitrogen fixation by legumes
  • Nitrogen fixation by non-legumes

Current N-related Projects:

  • Plant electron microscopy: the ultrastructure of beneficial plant-bacterial interactions. I also specialise in immunolocalisation of both conventionally (chemically)- and cryo-fixed plant material.
  • Nitrogen fixation by legumes: Currently measuring biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by field beans (Vicia faba) in an experimental rotation at the Centre for Sustainable Cropping (CSC), Balruddery Farm. This work is funded by the EU FP7 project Legume Futures.
  • Nitrogen fixation by non-legumes: I have recently edited a Special Issue of Plant and Soil on the role of biological nitrogen fixation by non-legumes in the sustainable production of food and biofuels. It includes 20 papers that were presented at the 12th International Symposium on Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) with Non-Legumes which was held in Buzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from 3-8 October 2010.


Bournaud C., James, E.K., de Faria, S.M., Lebrun, M., Melkonian, R., Duponnois, R., Tisseyre, P., Moulin, L. and Prin, Y. (2017) Interdependency of efficient nodulation and arbuscular mycorrhization in Piptadenia gonoacantha, a Brazilian legume tree. Plant, Cell and Environment DOI 10.1111/pce.13095

dos Santos, J.M.F., Casaes, P.A., Silva, V.C., Rhem, M.F.K., James, E.K., and Gross, E. (2017) Diverse genotypes of Bradyrhizobium nodulate herbaceous Chamaecrista (Moench) (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) species in Brazil. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 40, 69-79.

Kawaharada, Y., James, E.K., Kelly, S., Sandal, N., and Stougaard, J. (2017) The ERF required for Nodulation1 (ERN1) transcription factor is required for root nodule infection in Lotus japonicus. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 30, 194-204.

Kawaharada, Y., Nielsen, M.W., Kelly, S., James, E.K., Andersen, K., Rasmussen, S.R., Füchtbauer, W., Madsen, L.H., Heckmann, A.B., Radutoiu, R., Stougaard, J. (2017) Differential regulation of the Epr3 receptor coordinates membrane-restricted rhizobial colonization of root nodule primordia. Nature Communications DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14534

Ojha, A., Tak, N., Rathi, S., Chouhan, B., Rao, S.R., Barik, S.K., Joshi, S.R., Sprent, J.I., James, E.K. and Gehlot, H.S. (2017) Molecular characterization of novel Bradyrhizobium strains nodulating Eriosema chinense and Flemingia vestita, important unexplored native legumes of the sub-Himalayan region (Meghalaya) of India. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 40, 334-344.

de Castro Pires, R., dos Reis Junior, F.B, Zilli, J.E., Fischer, D., Hoffman, A., James, E.K. and Simon, M.F. (2017) Soil characteristics determine the rhizobia in association with different species of Mimosa in central Brazil. Plant and Soil (in press)

Sankhla, I.S., Tak, N., Meghwal, R.R., Choudhary, S., Tak, A., Rathi, S., Sprent, J.I., *James, E.K. and Gehlot, H.S. (2017) Molecular characterization of nitrogen fixing microsymbionts from root nodules of Vachellia (Acacia) jacquemontii, a native legume from the Thar Desert of India. Plant and Soil 410, 21–40

Baraúna, A.C., Rouws, L.F., Simoes-Araujo, J.L., dos Reis Junior, F.B., Iannetta, P.P.M., Maluk, M., Goi, S.R., Reis, V.M., *James, E.K., and Zilli, J.E. (2016) Rhizobium altiplani sp. nov. isolated from effective nodules on Mimosa pudica growing in untypically alkaline soil in Central Brazil. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 66, 4118-4124.

Bontemps, C., Rogel, M.A., Wiechmann, A., Mussabekova, A., Moody, S., Simon, M.F., Moulin, L., Elliott, G.N., Lacercat-Didier, L., Dasilva, C., Grether, R., Camargo-Ricalde, S.L., Chen, W., Sprent, J.I., Martínez-Romero, E., Young, J.P.W., and *James, E.K. (2016) Endemic Mimosa species from Mexico prefer alphaproteobacterial rhizobial symbionts. New Phytologist 209, 319–333.

Iannetta, P.P.M., Young, M., Bachinger, J., Bergkvist, G., Lopez-Bellido, R.J., Bregón, J.D., Monti, M., Pappa, V.A., Reckling, M., Topp, C.F.E., Walker, R., Rees, R.M., Watson, C.A., James, E.K., Squire, G.R., and Begg G.S. (2016) A comparative nitrogen balance and productivity analysis of legume and non-legume supported cropping systems: the potential role of biological nitrogen fixation. Frontiers in Plant Science 7, 1700 doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01700

Lemaire, B., Van Cauwenberghe, J., Verstraete, B., Chimphango, S., Stirton, C., Honnay, O., Smets, E., Sprent, J.I., James, E.K., and Muasya, A.M. (2016a) Characterization of the papilionoid-Burkholderia interaction in the Fynbos biome: the diversity and distribution of beta-rhizobia nodulating Podalyria calyptrata (Fabaceae, Podalyrieae). Systematic and Applied Microbiology 39, 41–48.

Lemaire, B., Chimphango, S., Stirton, C., Rafundeen S., Honnay, O., Smets, E., Chen, W-M., Sprent, J.I., James, E.K., and Muasya, A.M. (2016b) Biogeographical patterns of legume-nodulating Burkholderia: from African Fynbos to continental scales. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 82, 5099-5115.

Mitra, S., Mukherjee, A., Wiley-Kalil, A., Das, S., Owen, H., Reddy, P.M., Ané, J-M., *James, E.K., and Gyaneshwar, P. (2016) A rhamnose-deficient lipopolysaccharide mutant of Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 is defective in root colonization and beneficial interactions with its flooding-tolerant hosts Sesbania cannabina and wetland rice. Journal of Experimental Botany 67, 5869-5884.
Platero, R., James, E.K., Rios, C., Iriarte, A., Sandes, L., Zabaleta, M., Battistoni, F., and Fabiano, E. (2016) Novel Cupriavidus strains isolated from root nodules of native Uruguayan Mimosa species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 82, 3150 –3164.

Tak, N., Awasthi, E., Bissa, G., Meghwal, R.R., James, E.K., Sprent, J.I., and Gehlot, H.S. (2016) Multi locus sequence analysis and symbiotic characterization of novel Ensifer strains nodulating Tephrosia spp. in the Indian Thar Desert. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 39, 534-545.

Lemaire, B., Dlodlo, O., Chimphango, S., Stirton, C., Schrire, B., Boatwright, J.S., Honnay, O., Smets, E., Sprent, J.I., James, E.K., Muasya, A.M. (2015) Symbiotic diversity, specificity and distribution of rhizobia in native legumes of the Core Cape Subregion (South Africa). FEMS Microbiology Ecology 91, doi: 10.1093/femsec/fiu024

Małolepszy, A., Urbański, D.F., James, E.K., Sandal, N., Isono, E., Stougaard, J., and Andersen, S.U. (2015). The de-ubiquitinating enzyme AMSH1 is required for nodule infection and organogenesis in Lotus japonicus. The Plant Journal 83, 719-731.

Matamoros, M.A., Saiz, A., Peñuelas, M., Bustos-Sanmamed, P., Mulet, J.M., Barja, M.V., Rouhier, N., Moore, M., James, E.K., Dietz, K-J., and Becana, M. (2015) Function of glutathione peroxidases in legume root nodules. Journal of Experimental Botany 66, 2979–2990.

Sheu, S-Y., Chen, M-H., Liu, W.Y.Y., Andrews, M., James, E.K., Ardley, J.A., De Meyer, S.E., James, T.K., Howieson, J.G., Coutinho, B.G., and Chen, W-M. (2015) Burkholderia dipogonis sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Dipogon lignosus in New Zealand and Western Australia. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 65, 4716 – 4723.

Zgadzaj, R., James E.K., Kelly, S., Kawaharada, Y., de Jonge, N., Jensen, D.B., Madsen, L.H. and Radutoiu, S. (2015) A legume genetic framework controls infection of nodules by symbiotic and endophytic bacteria. PLoS Genetics DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005280

Burchill, W., James, E.K., Li, D., Lanigan, G.J., Williams, M., Iannetta, P.P.M. and Humphreys, J. (2014) Comparisons of biological nitrogen fixation in association with white clover (Trifolium repens L.) under four fertiliser nitrogen inputs as measured using two ¹5N techniques. Plant and Soil 385, 287-302.

Liu, W.Y.Y., Ridgway, H.J., James, T.K., James, E.K., Chen, W-M., Sprent, J.I., Young, J.P.W. and Andrews, M. (2014) Burkholderia sp. induces functional nodules on the South African invasive legume Dipogon lignosus (Phaseoleae) in New Zealand soils. Microbial Ecology 68, 542-555.

Melkonian, R., Moulin, L., Béna, G., Tisseyre, P., Chaintreuil, C., Heulin, K., Rezkallah, N., Klonowska, A., Gonzalez, S., Simon, M., Chen, W-M., James, E.K., and Laguerre, G. (2014) The geographical patterns of symbiont diversity in the invasive legume Mimosa pudica can be explained by the competitiveness of its symbionts and by the host genotype. Environmental Microbiology 16, 2099-2111.

Moulin L., Klonowska, A., Bournaud, C., Booth, K., Vriezen, J.A.C., Melkonian1, R., James, E.K., Young, J.P.W., Bena, G., Hauser, L., Land, M., Kyrpides, N., Bruce, D., Chain, P., Copeland, A., Pitluck, S., Woyke, T., Lizotte-Waniewski, M., Bristow, J., Riley, M. (2014) Complete Genome sequence of Burkholderia phymatum STM815T, a broad host range and efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa species. Standards in Genomic Sciences 9, 763-774.

Bournaud C., de Faria, S.M., dos Santos, J.M.F., Tisseyre, P., Silva, M., Chaintreuil, C., Gross, E., James, E.K., Prin, Y., and Moulin, L. (2013) Burkholderia species are the most common and preferred nodulating symbionts of the Piptadenia Group (tribe Mimoseae). PLoS ONE 8, 63476.

Chen, M-H., Sheu, S-Y., James, E.K., Young, C-C., and Chen, W-M. (2013) Azoarcus olearius sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from oil-contaminated soil. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 63, 3755-3761.

Gehlot, H.S., Tak, N., Kaushik, M., Mitra, S., Chen, W-M., Poweleit, N., Panwar, D., Poonar, N., Parihar, R., Tak, A., Sankhla, I.S., Ojha, A., Rao, S.R., Simon, M.F., dos Reis Junior, F.B., Perigolo, N., Tripathi, A., Sprent, J.I., Young, J.P.W., *James, E.K., and Gyaneshwar P. (2013) An invasive Mimosa in India does not adopt the symbionts of its native relatives. Annals of Botany 112: 179-196.

Sheu, S-Y., Chou, J-H., Bontemps, C., Elliott, G.N., Gross, E., dos Reis Junior, F.B., Melkonian, R., Moulin, L., James, E.K., Sprent, J.I, Young, J.P.W., and Chen, W-M. (2013) Burkholderia diazotrophica sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Mimosa spp. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 63, 435-441.

Sprent, J.I., Ardley, J.A., and James, E.K. (2013) From North to South: A latitudinal look at legume nodulation processes. South African Journal of Botany 89, 31-41.

Ampomah, O.Y., James, E.K., Iannetta, P.P.M., Kenicer, G., Sprent, J.I., and Huss-Danell, K. (2012) Nodulation and ecological significance of indigenous legumes in Scotland and Sweden. Symbiosis 57,133–148.

Chen, W-M., Prell, J., James, E.K., Sheu, D-S., and Sheu, S-Y. (2012) Biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids is essential for effective symbioses between β-rhizobia and Mimosa pudica. Microbiology 158, 1758–1766.

Chen, W-M., Prell, J., James, E.K., Sheu, D-S., and Sheu, S-Y. (2012) Effect of phosphoglycerate mutase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency on free-living and symbiotic Burkholderia phymatum. Microbiology 158, 1127-1136.

Clemente, M.R., Pilar Bustos-Sanmamed, P., Loscos, J., James, E.K., Pérez-Rontomé, C., Navascués, J., Gay, M., and Becana, M. (2012) Thiol synthetases of legumes: immunogold localization and differential gene regulation by phytohormones. Journal of Experimental Botany 63, 3923–3934.

Fonseca, M.B., Peix, A., de Faria, S.M., Mateos, P.F., Rivera, L.P., Simões-Araujo, J.L., Costa França, M.G., dos Santos Isaias, R.M., Cruz, C., Velázquez, E., Scotti, M.R., Sprent, J.I. and *James, E.K. (2012) Nodulation in Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. (Caesalpinioideae), a threatened species native to the Brazilian Cerrado. PLoS ONE 7, e49520

Gehlot, H.S., Panwar, D., Tak, N., Tak, A., Sankhla, I.S., Poonar, N., Parihar, R., Shekhawat, N.S., Kumar, M., Tiwari, R., Ardley, J., James, E.K., and Sprent, J.I. (2012) Nodulation of legumes from the Thar desert of India and molecular characterization of their rhizobia. Plant and Soil 357, 227–243.

Hossain, M.S., Liao, J., James, E.K., Sato, S., Tabata, T., Jurkiewicz, A., Madsen, L.H., Stougaard, J., Ross L., and Szczyglowski, K. (2012) Lotus japonicus ARPC1 is required for rhizobial infection. Plant Physiology 160, 917-928.

Liu, X.Y., Wei S., Wang, F., James, E.K., Guo, X.Y., Zagar, C., Xia, L.G., Dong, X., Wang, Y.P. (2012) Burkholderia and Cupriavidus spp. are the preferred symbionts of Mimosa spp. in Southern China. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 80, 417-426.

Sheu, S-Y., Chou, J-H., Bontemps, C., Elliott, G.N., Gross, E., James, E.K., Sprent, J.I, Young, J.P.W., and Chen, W-M. (2012) Burkholderia symbiotica sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Mimosa spp. native to North East Brazil. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 62, 2272-2278.

Tan, H.W., Weir, B.S., Carter, N., Heenan, P.B., Ridgway, H.J., James, E.K., Sprent, J.I, Young, J.P.W., and Andrews, M. (2012) Rhizobia with 16S rRNA and nifH similar to Mesorhizobium huakuii but novel recA, glnII, nodA and nodC genes are symbionts of New Zealand Carmichaelinae. PLoS ONE 7, e47677

Asensio, A.C., Marino, D., James, E.K., Ariz, I., Arrese-Igor, C., Aparicio-Tejo, P.M., Arredondo-Peter, R.J., and Moran, J.F. (2011) Expression and localization of a Rhizobium-derived cambialistic superoxide dismutase in pea (Pisum sativum) nodules subjected to oxidative stress. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 24, 1247-1257.

*James, E.K., Iannetta, P.P.M., Kenicer, G., Sprent, J.I., and Squire, G. (2011) Nodulation of Lathyrus and Vicia spp. in non-agricultural soils in East Scotland. Aspects of Applied Biology 109, 119-124.

Bek, A.S., Sauer, J., Thygesen M.B., Duus J.O., Petersen, B.O., Thirup, S., James, E., Jensen, K.J., Stougaard J., and Radutoiu, S. (2010) Improved characterisation of Nod factors and genetically based variation in LysM2 receptor domains identify amino acids expendable for Nod factor recognition in Lotus. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 23, 58-66.

Bontemps, C., Elliott, G.N., Simon, M.F., dos Reis Junior, F.B., Gross, E., Lawton, R.C., Neto, N.E., Loureiro, M.F., de Faria, S.M., Sprent, J.I., James, E.K., and Young, J.P.W. (2010) Burkholderia species are ancient symbionts of legumes. Molecular Ecology 19, 44-52.

dos Reis Junior, F.B., Simon, M.F., Gross, E., Boddey, R.M., Elliott, G.N., Neto, N.E., Loureiro, M.F., Queiroz, L.P., Scotti, M.R., Chen, W-M., Norén, A., Rubio, M.C., de Faria, S.M., Bontemps, C., Goi, S.R., Young, J.P.W., Sprent, J.I., and *James, E.K. (2010) Nodulation and nitrogen fixation by Mimosa spp. in the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes of Brazil. New Phytologist 186, 934-946.

Karunakaran, R., Haag, A.F., East, A.K., Ramachandran, V.K., Prell, J., James, E.K., Scocchi, M., Ferguson, G.P., and Poole, P.S. (2010) BacA is essential for bacteroid development in nodules of galegoid, but not phaseoloid, legumes. Journal of Bacteriology 192, 2920–2928.

Madsen, L.H., Tirichine, L., Jurkiewicz, A., Sullivan, J.T., Heckmann, A.B., Bek, A.S., Ronson, C.W., James, E.K., and Stougaard, J. (2010) The molecular network governing nodule organogenesis and infection in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Nature Communications 1, (DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1009).

Cummings, S.P., Gyaneshwar, P., Vinuesa, P., Farruggia, F.T., Andrews, M., Humphry, D., Elliott, G.N., Nelson, A., Orr, C., Pettitt, D., Shah, G.R., Santos, S.R., Krishnan, H.B., Odee, D., Moreira, F.M.S., Sprent, J.I., Young, J.P.W., and *James, E.K. (2009) Nodulation of Sesbania species by Rhizobium (Agrobacterium) strain IRBG74 and other rhizobia. Environmental Microbiology 11, 2510-2525.

Elliott, G.N., Chou, J-H., Chen, W-M., Bloemberg, G.V., Bontemps, C., Martínez- Romero, E., Velázquez, E., Young, J.P.W., Sprent, J.I. and James, E.K. (2009) Burkholderia spp. are the most competitive symbionts of Mimosa, particularly under N-limited conditions. Environmental Microbiology 11, 762-778.

Yokota, K., Fukei, E., Madsen, L.H. Jurkiewicz, A., Rueda, P., Radutoiu, S., Held, M., Hossain, M.S., Szczyglowski, K., Morieri, G., Oldroyd, G.E.D., Downie, J.A., Nielsen, M.W., Rusek, A.M., Sato, S., Tabata, S., James, E.K., Oyaizu, H., Sandal, N., and Stougaard, J. (2009) Rearrangement of actin cytoskeleton mediates invasion of Lotus japonicus roots by Mesorhizobium loti. The Plant Cell 21, 267-284.

Beck, S., Marlow, V.L., Woodall, K., Doerrler, W.T., James, E.K., and Ferguson, G.P. (2008) The Sinorhizobium meliloti MsbA2 protein is essential for the legume symbiosis. Microbiology 154: 1258-1270.

Chen, W-M., Wu, C-H., James, E.K. and Jo-Shu Chang, J-S. (2008) Metal biosorption capability of Cupriavidus taiwanensis and its effects on heavy metal removal by nodulated Mimosa pudica. Journal of Hazardous Materials 151, 364-371.

Chen, W-M., de Faria, S.M., Chou, J-H., James, E.K., Elliott, G.N., Sprent, J.I., Bontemps, C., Young, J.P.W., Vandamme, P. (2008) Burkholderia sabiae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58, 2174-2179.

Chen, W-M., de Faria, S.M., James, E.K., Elliott, G.N., Lin, K-Y., Chou, J-H, Sheu, S-Y., Cnockaert, M., Sprent, J.I., and Vandamme, P. (2007) Burkholderia nodosa sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of the woody Brazilian legumes Mimosa bimucronata and Mimosa scabrella. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 57, 1055-1059.

Chou, Y-J., Elliott, G.N., James, E.K., Lin, K-Y., Chou, J-H., Sheu, S-Y., Sheu, D-S., Sprent, J.I., and Chen, W-M. (2007) Labrys neptuniae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of the aquatic legume Neptunia oleracea. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 57, 577-581.

Elliott, G.N., Chen, W-M., Chou, J-H., Wang, H-C., Sheu, S-Y., Perin, L., Reis, V.M., Moulin, L., Simon, M.F., Bontemps, C., Sutherland, J.M., Bessi, R., de Faria, S.M., Trinick, M.J., Prescott, A.R., Sprent, J.I. and *James, E.K. (2007) Burkholderia phymatum is a highly effective nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa spp. and fixes nitrogen ex planta. New Phytologist 173, 168-180.

Elliott, G.N., Chen, W-M., Bontemps, C., Chou, J-H., Young, J.P.W., Sprent, J.I. and *James, E.K. (2007) Nodulation of Cyclopia spp. (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) by Burkholderia tuberum. Annals of Botany 100, 1403-1411.

Humphry, D.R., Andrews M., Santos, S.R., James, E.K., Lioubov V. Vinogradova, L.V., Perin, L., Reis, V.M. and Cummings, S.P. (2007) Phylogenetic assignment and mechanism of action of a crop growth promoting Rhizobium radiobacter strain used as a biofertiliser on graminaceous crops in Russia. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology 91, 105-113.

Rubio, M.C., Becana, M., Sato, S., James, E.K., Tabata, S. and Spaink, H.P. (2007) Characterization of genomic clones and expression analysis of the three types of superoxide dismutases during nodule development in Lotus japonicus. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 20, 262-275.

Chen, W-M., James, E.K., Coenye, T., Chou, J-H, Barrios, E., de Faria, S.M., Elliott, G.N., Sheu, S-Y., Sprent, J.I., and Vandamme, P. (2006) Burkholderia mimosarum sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Mimosa spp. from Taiwan and South America. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 56, 1847-1851.

Kanamori, N., Madsen, L.H., Radutoiu, S., Frantescu, M., Quistgaard, E.M.H., Miwa, H., Downie, J.A., James, E.K., Felle, H.H., Haaning, L.L., Jensen, L.L.T.H., Sato, S., Nakamura, Y., Tabata, S., Sandal, N. and Stougaard, J. (2006) A nucleoporin is required for induction of Ca2+ spiking in legume nodule development and essential for rhizobial and fungal symbioses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103, 359-364.

Tirichine, L., James, E.K., Sandal, N., and Stougaard, J. (2006) Spontaneous root-nodule formation in the model legume Lotus japonicus: A novel class of mutants nodulates in the absence of rhizobia. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 19, 373-382.

Chen, W-M., de Faria, S.M., Straliotto, R., Pitard, R.M., Simões-Araùjo, J.L., Chou, Yi-Ju Chou, J-H., Barrios, E., Prescott, A.R., Elliott, G.N., Sprent, J.I., Young, J.P.W., and *James, E.K. (2005) Proof that Burkholderia Forms Effective Symbioses with Legumes: a Study of Novel Mimosa-nodulating Strains from South America. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71, 7461-7471.

Chen, W-M., James, E.K., Chou, J-H, Sheu, S-Y., Yang, S-Z., and Sprent, J.I. (2005) Beta-rhizobia from Mimosa pigra, a newly-discovered invasive plant in Taiwan. New Phytologist 168, 661-675.

Krusell, L., Krause, K., Ott, T., Desbrosses, G., Kraemer, U., Sato, S., Nakamura, Y., Tabata, S., James, E.K., Sandal, N., Stougaard, J., Kawaguchi, M., Miyamoto, A., Suganuma, N., and Udvardi, M.K. (2005) The sulfate transporter SST1 is crucial for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Lotus japonicus root nodules. The Plant Cell 17, 1-12.

Goormachtig, S., Capoen, W, James, E.K., and Holsters, M. (2004) Switch from intercellular invasion during water stress-tolerant legume nodulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101, 6303-6308.

Rubio, M.C., James, E.K., Clemente, M.R., Bucciarelli, B., Fedorova, M., Vance, C.P., and Becana, M. (2004) Localization of superoxide dismutases and hydrogen peroxide in legume root nodules. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 17, 1294-1305.

Chen, W-M., *James, E.K., Prescott, A.R., Kierans, M., and Sprent, J.I. (2003) Nodulation of Mimosa spp. by the β-proteobacterium Ralstonia taiwanensis. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 16, 1051-1061.

Moran, J.F., James, E.K., Rubio, M.C., Sarath, G., Klucas, R.V. and Becana , M. (2003). Functional characterization and expression of a cytosolic iron-superoxide dismutase from cowpea root nodules. Plant Physiology 133, 773-782.

Ramos, M.L.G., Parsons, R., Sprent, J.I., and James, E.K. (2003) Effect of water stress on nitrogen fixation and nodule structure of common bean. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 38, 339-347.

Vinagradova, L.V., Humphry, D.R., Andrews, M., Cummings, S.P., James, E.K., Gyaneshwar, P., Perin, L., Reis, V.M. and Zavalin, A.A. (2003) Taxonomic review and mechanistic analysis of the crop growth promoting effect of Agrobacterium radiobacter strain 204: used as a biofertiliser on graminaceous crops in Russia. Aspects of Applied Biology 70: 175-182.

*James, E.K., Gyaneshwar, P., Mathan, N., Barraquio, W.L., Reddy, P.M., Iannetta, P.P.M., Olivares, F.L. and Ladha, J.K. (2002) Infection and colonization of rice seedlings by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 15, 894-906.

Gyaneshwar, P., *James, E.K., Reddy, P.M., and Ladha, J.K. (2002) Herbaspirillum colonization increases growth and nitrogen accumulation in aluminium tolerant rice varieties. New Phytologist 154, 131-146.

Moran, J.F., Sun, Z., Sarath, G., Arredondo-Peter, R., James, E.K., Becana, M. and Klucas, R.V. (2002). Molecular cloning, functional characterization, and subcellular localization of soybean nodule dihydrolipoamide reductase. Plant Physiology 128, 300-313.

*James, E.K., Olivares, F.L., Oliveira, A.L.M. de, dos Reis, F.B., da Silva, L.G., Reis, V.M. (2001) Further observations on the interaction between sugar cane and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Journal of Experimental Botany 52, 747-760.

*James, E.K., Loureiro, M. De F., Pott, A., Pott, V.J., Martins, C.M., Franco, A.A. and Sprent, J.I. (2001) Flooding-tolerant legume symbioses from the Brazilian Pantanal. New Phytologist 150, 723-738.

Gyaneshwar, P., James, E.K., Mathan, N., Reddy, P.M., Reinhold-Hurek, B., and Ladha, J.K. (2001) Endophytic colonization of rice by a diazotrophic strain of Serratia marcescens. Journal of Bacteriology 183, 2634-2645.

James, E.K., Iannetta, P.P.M., Deeks, L., Sprent, J.I. and Minchin, F.R. (2000) Detopping causes production of intercellular space occlusions in both the cortex and infected region of soybean nodules. Plant, Cell and Environment 23, 377-386.

*James, E.K. and Sprent, J.I. (1999) Development of N2-fixing nodules on the wetland legume Lotus uliginosus exposed to conditions of flooding. New Phytologist 142, 219-231.

*James, E.K., Minchin, F.R., Oxborough, K., Cookson, A., Baker, N.R., Witty, J.F., Crawford, R.M.M. and Sprent, J.I. (1998) Photosynthetic oxygen evolution within Sesbania rostrata stem nodules. The Plant Journal 13, 29-38.

*James, E.K. and Crawford, R.M.M. (1998) Effect of oxygen availability on nitrogen fixation by two Lotus species under flooded conditions. Journal of Experimental Botany 49, 599-610.

Gueye, M., James, E.K., Kierans, M. and Sprent, J.I. (1998) The development and structure of root nodules on bambara groundnut [Voandzeia (Vigna) subterranea]. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 14, 177-184.

*James, E.K., Olivares, F.L., Baldani, J.I. and Döbereiner, J. (1997) Herbaspirillum, an endophytic diazotroph colonising vascular tissue in leaves of Sorghum bicolor L. Moench. Journal of Experimental Botany 48, 785-797.

*James, E.K., Minchin, F.R., Iannetta, P.P.M. and Sprent, J.I. (1997) Temporal relationships between nitrogenase and intercellular glycoproteins in developing white lupin nodules. Annals of Botany 79, 493-503.

Olivares F.L., *James, E.K., Baldani, J.I. and Döbereiner, J. (1997) Infection of mottled stripe disease-susceptible and resistant sugar cane varieties by the endophytic diazotroph Herbaspirillum. New Phytologist 135, 723-737.

Sprent, J.I., Geoghegan, I.E., Whitty, P.W. and James, E.K. (1996) Natural abundance of 15N and 13C in nodulated legumes and other plants in the Cerrado and neighbouring regions of Brazil. Oecologia 105, 440-446.

Iannetta, P.P.M., James, E.K., Sprent, J.I. and Minchin, F.R. (1995). Time course of changes involved in the operation of the oxygen diffusion barrier in white lupin nodules. Journal of Experimental Botany 46, 565-575.

Loureiro, M. de F., *James, E.K., Sprent, J.I. and Franco, A.A. (1995). Stem and root nodules on the tropical wetland legume Aeschynomene fluminensis Vell. New Phytologist 130, 531-544.

*James, E.K., Iannetta, P.P.M., Naisbitt, T., Goi, S.R., Sutherland, J.M., Sprent, J.I., Minchin, F.R. and Brewin, N.J. (1994) A survey of N2-fixing nodules in the leguminosae: with particular reference to intercellular glycoproteins and the control of oxygen diffusion. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (B) 102, 429-432.

*James, E.K., Reis, V.M., Olivares, F.L., Baldani, J.I. and Döbereiner, J. (1994) Infection of sugar cane by the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus. Journal of Experimental Botany 45, 757-766.

Loureiro, M. de F., de Faria, S.M., *James, E.K., Pott, A. and Franco, A.A. (1994). Nitrogen-fixing stem nodules of the legume, Discolobium pulchellum Benth. New Phytologist 128, 283-295.

Spencer, D., James, E.K., Ellis, G.J., Shaw, J.E. and Sprent, J.I. (1994) Interaction between rhizobia and potato tissues. Journal of Experimental Botany 45, 1475-1482.

*James, E.K., Sprent, J.I., Hay, G.T. and Minchin, F.R. (1993) The effect of irradiance on the recovery of soybean nodules from sodium chloride induced senescence. Journal of Experimental Botany 44, 997-1005.

De Lorenzo, C., Iannetta, P.P.M., Fernandez-Pascual, M., James, E.K., Lucas, M.M., Sprent, J.I., de Felipe, M.R., Witty, J.F. and Minchin, F.R. (1993) Oxygen diffusion in lupin nodules II. Mechanisms of diffusion barrier operation. Journal of Experimental Botany 44, 1469-1474.

Iannetta, P.P.M., James, E.K., McHardy, P., Sprent, J.I. and Minchin, F.R. (1993) An ELISA procedure for quantification of relative amounts of intercellular glycoprotein in legume nodules. Annals of Botany 71, 85-90.

Iannetta, P.P.M., De Lorenzo, C., James, E.K., Fernandez-Pascual, M., Sprent, J.I., Lucas, M.M., Witty, J.F., De Felipe, M.R. and Minchin, F.R. (1993) Oxygen diffusion in lupin nodules I. Visualisation of diffusion barrier operation. Journal of Experimental Botany 44, 1461-1467.

Naisbitt, T., James, E.K. and Sprent, J.I. (1992) The evolutionary significance of the legume genus Chamaecrista, as determined by nodule structure. New Phytologist 122, 487-492.

*James, E.K., Sprent, J.I., Sutherland, J.M., McInroy, S.G. and Minchin, F.R. (1992) The structure of nitrogen fixing nodules on the aquatic mimosoid legume Neptunia plena. Annals of Botany 69, 173-180.

*James, E.K., Minchin, F.R. and Sprent, J.I. (1992) The physiology and nitrogen fixing capability of aquatically and terrestrially-grown Neptunia plena: the importance of nodule oxygen supply. Annals of Botany 69, 181-187.

Goi, S.R., Sprent, J.I., James, E.K. and Jacob-Neto, J. (1992) Influence of nitrogen form and concentration on the nitrogen fixation of Acacia auriculiformis. Symbiosis 14, 115-122.

*James, E.K., Sprent, J.I., Minchin, F.R. and Brewin, N.J. (1991) Intercellular location of glycoprotein in soybean nodules: effect of altered rhizosphere oxygen concentration. Plant, Cell and Environment 14, 467-476.


Nitrogen-fixing Leguminous Symbioses. Volume 7 of Nitrogen Fixation: Origins, Applications and Research Progress. Edited by M.J. Dilworth, E.K. James, J.I. Sprent, and W.E. Newton. Springer, Dordrecht. (2008) 402 pages.

Invited review papers and book chapters (peer reviewed):

James, E.K.* (2017) Nitrogen Fixation. In: Brian Thomas, Brian G Murray and Denis J Murphy (Editors in Chief), Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences, Vol 1, Waltham, MA: Academic Press, pp. 271–277.
Sprent, J.I., Ardley, J.A., and James, E.K.* (2017) Biogeography of nodulated legumes and their nitrogen fixing symbionts. New Phytologist 215, 40-56.

Gonzalez-Andres, F., and James, E.K. (2015) National Meeting of the Spanish Society of Nitrogen Fixation (XV SEFIN). Symbiosis 67, 1–2.
Hartmann, A., James, E.K., deBruijn, F.J., Schwab, S., Rothballer M., and Schmid, M. (2015) In situ localization and strain-specific quantification of Azospirillum and other diazotrophic plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) using antibodies and molecular probes. In: Handbook for Azospirillum. Technical issues and protocols. Eds. Cassán, F., Okon, Y., Creus, C. Springer. Dordrecht. pp 45-64.

Moulin, L., James, E.K., Klonowska, A., de Faria, S.M., Simon, M.F. (2015) Phylogeny, diversity, geographical distribution and host range of legume-nodulating Betaproteobacteria: